Answered by Ustadh Abdus Shakur Brooks
What are the matters related to Malikis following Hanafi & Shafi Imams in Eid prayer?
In regards to Eid prayer there are a few matters in which the Malikis differ with other schools based on the different narrations of hadith, how they understood them, and even the various amount of opinions that existed amongst the companions themselves. These differences affect the manner in which Malikis conduct their prayer behind a Imam who follows another school of thought and for this reason the Maliki scholars discussed such issues in their works of fiqh.
According to the Maliki school the first rakah of Eid prayer consists of 7 takbirs in complete ( 1 for the takbir al-Ihram, which is to enter the prayer and 6 takbirs for the Eid prayer)
According to the Shafi’s their first rakah consists of 8 takbirs ( 1 for the takbir al-Ihram and 7 for the Eid prayer) which means they do one more takbirs than Malikis do.
So the question is does a Maliki follow the Shafi Imam and increase an extra takbir along with him or not?
According to the Maliki school, The Maliki scholar Al-Hattab [954 A.H] in his famous work called Mawahib Al-Jaleel li Sharh Al-Mukhtasar Khalil mentions what Ibn Abi Zayd recorded in his copious work Al-Nawadir wal Ziyadat quoting the companion of Imam Malik known as Ashab as saying:
“If the Imam during the first rakah does more than 7 takbirs [meaning that he does 8 takbirs including the takbir al-ihram] or in the second he does more than five, then he [who is Maliki] do not follow him.”
This is the opinion in the school and it is said that there is no difference of opinion in this matter.
Following a Hanafi Imam in Eid Prayer
According to the Maliki’s they recite after making the takbirs in both rakahs. Also in the second rakah they make 5 takbirs (not including the takbir for standing) .
According to the Hanafi’s they recite first and then do their takbirs (contrary to the Malikis). Also, in the second rakah they make 3 takbirs only (whereas the Malikis make 5).
So there are two questions here:
1. Does a Maliki follow a Hanafi Imam and recite first or not?
Amongst the earlier scholars of the Maliki madhab this matter was not explicitly mentioned. Thus, the latter scholars differed drawing their conclusions from similar issues of fiqh related to the topic.
According to Al-Hattab his conclusion was that one should follow the Hanafi Imam in reciting first then doing the takbirs in the second rakah.
Those like Ahmad Dardir [1241 A.H], and his senior companion Muhammad al-Amir [1232 A.H] in his famous work al-Majmoo’a, concluded that they are not to follow the Hanafi’s in that.
Thus, because it is a matter that the later scholars differed about it is permissible for a person to act on any one of the positions because they are not conclusive matters established within the madhab. And either one is fine as long as one makes sure that they complete all of their takbirs according to the Maliki school without increase or decrease.
2. Does a Maliki follow a Hanafi Imam in making three takbirs in the second rakah only ?
Al-Hattab mentions that both views: (1)that one should follow or (2) that one should not follow are open for speculation and thus did not opt for one over the other.
On the other hand Muhammad Al-Amir clearly states that one does not follow a Shafi or a Hanafi in what they increase or decrease from the takbirs, or when the Hanafi’s delay the takbirs in the second rakah.
And Allah Knows Best